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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f1\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2506\margr3989\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2506\margrsxn3989\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li713\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 BUDDHIST COUNCIL : RISE OF MAHAYlNA      229}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li4\fi0\ri79\sb238\sa0\sl-234\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw17\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 in an exquisite edifice and the convocation of a \expndtw4 grand Buddhist Assembly further point in this same \expndtw14 direction. \\}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li25\fi0\ri0\sb227\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs23 The 'Buddhist Council}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li4\fi490\ri40\sb198\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw3\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The reign of Kaniska is specially important in the \expndtw4 history of the Buddhist church, for we learn that, being \expndtw1 perplexed in his theological studies, he convened with the \expndtw4 permission of his teacher, ParsVika or Parsva, a council \expndtw0 of 500 monks \i (mahdsam^3a\}\sub 9\nosupersub  \i0 belonging to the Sarvas-\expndtw4 tivadin school, to settle the disputed doctrines. The \expndtw7 conference was held at Kundalavana in the delightful \expndtw1 vale of Kashmir;\super 1\nosupersub  its deliberations were guided by Vasu-\expndtw10 mitra, and in his absence Asvaghosa acted as Presi\-\expndtw17 dent. Their labours resulted in the compilation of \expndtw2 the \i Vibhdsa Sdstra \i0 and other comprehensive commenta\-\expndtw13 ries on the canon, which after being engraved on \expndtw5 "sheets of red copper" were sealed and deposited in a \i\expndtw10 Stftpa. \i0 Who knows these invaluable documents may \expndtw8 still lie buried there, and a lucky spade may one day \expndtw17 bring them to light?}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li36\fi0\ri0\sb212\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex86\expndtw4\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 RJse of the Mahdydna}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li32\fi475\ri14\sb155\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw7\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The appearance of the Buddha along with other \expndtw6 deities on Kaniska's coins clearly indicates that Bud\-\expndtw2 dhism had by this time moved far away from its original \expndtw11 moorings. While the early Buddhists regarded the \expndtw4 Master merely as a human being, a great guide in the \expndtw8 journey of life, he was now elevated to the position of \expndtw2 a god, accessible to the supplications of his devotees, and}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li36\fi400\ri0\sb306\sa0\sl-202\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw3\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 icf. YuanChwang, \i Si-yu-ki \i0 (Bed, I, pp. 151-156; Walters, I, \expndtw0 pp. 270-278). According to another Chinese account, the meeting \expndtw7 place of the assembly was Gandhara. Still another authority \expndtw1 locates it at Jalandhar. We heat of the conference from Northern \expndtw4 traditions only; the Ceylonese chronicles make no mention of it.}\par }